I have just copied the contents from stackoverflow and guess that it would be helpful to many people searching for different types of dimensions existing. And I also welcome people to add dimensions which they have come across and update this post if anything is missing or found wrong.
Standard star dimension.
Time Dimension A special case of the standard star dimension.
Used to model hierarchical structures, fx BOM (bill of materials).
Can also be used to model hierarchical structures.
When the dimension attribute is stored as part of fact table, and not in a separate dimension table. Typically used for high cardinality dimensions like "transaction number".
A single table with a combination of different and unrelated attributes to avoid having a large number of foreign keys in the fact table. Junk dimensions are often created to manage the foreign keys created by Rapidly Changing Dimensions. Typically used for low cardinality, non-related dimensions like gender or other booleans.
Role playing dimensions
For instance, a "Date" dimension can be used for "Date of Sale", as well as "Date of Delivery", or "Date of Hire".
For rapidly changing large dimensions. Typically used for managing high frequency, low cardinality change in a dimension.
Implemented in multiple database tables using the same structure, attributes, domain values, definitions and concepts in each implementation. Also seen under the name Shared dimension.
A very large dimension.
Is a subset of a dimension’s attributes that apply to a higher level of summary. For example, a Month dimension would be a shrunken dimension of the Date dimension. The Month dimension could be connected to a forecast fact table whose grain is at the monthly level. Dimension.
While loading fact records, a dimension record may not yet be ready. One solution is to generate an surrogate key with Null for all the other attributes. This should technically be called an inferred member, but is often called an inferred dimension.
It not extracted from the original data source, but are created within the context of the data warehouse. A static dimension can be loaded manually — for example with Status codes — or it can be generated by a procedure, such as a Date or Time dimension.
Multi value Dimension
Is simply a bridge table between the entities involved in the many-to-many relationship. It is also possible that the many-to-many is between a fact and dimension.
Dynamic dimensions. These can be further divided into 2 groups.
Slowly changing dimension/Rapidly changing dimension
Attributes of a dimension that would undergo changes over time
Slowly Growing Dimension/Rapidly Growing Dimension
Relates to the growth of records/elements in the dimension.
NB: These can then be combined with the size of the dimension table, resulting in "Rapidly Changing Monster Dimension", "Slowly changing mini dimension" etc.
Some other dimensions-
Data Mining Dimensions
Dimension triage dimension
Non-conforming dimensions from the general ledger